Sohibnazarova Havasmoh Tilloevna,
GRAMMATICAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF TRANSLATING THE PREDICATE FROM ENGLISH INTO TAJIK AND BACK
Though the Tajik and the English languages belong to analytical type of languages and different word order appeared in them historically, while translating from English into Tajik and back structural transformations within the limits of grammatical laws of each language are inevitable. The position of the part of the sentences defines its functional loading and semantics.
In this connection, “it is very important to consider the structural transformations mainly connected with translation of predicative which makes a basis of any sentence and aroses translational difficulties” [3, 184].
It is necessary to notice that «one of the basic problems of translation from English into Tajik consists in absence of some English grammatical categories in the Tajik language. Really, there are some grammatical forms and structures which belong only to English»[6, 47-51].
As it is known, grammatical transformation is one of the ways of translation, consisting in changing sentence structure or a word combination preserving its semantic information. It is full or partial reconstruction of the sentence, replacement of parts of speech and parts of the sentence during translation. Wide use of the grammatical transformations during the translation explains that the sentences in considered languages cannot coincide in the structure: other word order, other order of arrangement of the sentences: principal, subordinate and parenthetical clause.
It is necessary to ascertain that for adequacy of translation the units of language should coincide both in form and in the meaning to which translators usually aspire to. There are a lot of cases among our examples when zero transformation is observed, i.e. the original sentence is not exposed to essential structural transformations:
1. The clouds over the land now rose like mountains… [4, 42].
Translation: - Абрњо њоло дар болои замин чун силсилаи кўњњо баланд мешуданд [4, 43].
2. Once I could see quite well in the dark [4, 86].
Translation: – Замоне ман њам дар торикї хеле хуб медидам [4, 87].
3. The old man looked at him with his sun-burned, confident loving eyes [4, 10].
Translation: – Пирамард бо чашмони офтобхўрда ва мутмаину бамењраш ба ў нигарист [4, 11].
As it seems from the examples, the English affirmative sentences were translated in the way of word by word and all the components and the parts of the sentences are kept in them. The grammatical basis of the first sentence clouds rose - keeps its function and purpose in translation - абрњо баланд мешуданд. In the sentences of the considered languages as it was marked earlier, the established order of a simple sentence is observed, accordingly, the principal parts of the sentence take their places.
Zero transformation can be observed both in interrogative and imperative sentences. Compare these examples:
<![if !supportLists]>1. <![endif]>“How did you sleep old man?” the boy asked [4, 30].
Translation: – Чї хел хоб кардї, бобо, - пурсид писарак [4, 31].
<![if !supportLists]>2. <![endif]>Have faith in the Yankees my son [4, 16].
Translation: – Ба Янкињо эътимод дошта бош, писарам [4, 17].
<![if !supportLists]>3. <![endif]>Can I go out to get sardines for you for tomorrow? “No. Go and play baseball [4, 10].
Translation: - Мехоњї барои фардо сардина биёрамат? Не. Бирав, бейсбол бозї кун [4, 110].
Similar reasonings can be conducted concerning back translation:
1. Ҳанўз аз даҳонат бўи шир меояд, аммо ту худро сисола мегўї? – гуфт – Қорї – Ишкамба [1, 127].
Translation: - “You’re still wet behind the ears, and here you are pretending to be thirty!” piped up Kori – Ishkamba [2, 302].
2. Худат рафтан гир! Туро гург намехурад [1, 28].
Translation: - You can go by yourself - don’t be afraid [2, 30].
While translating these examples into English though from Russian, the emphasized Tajik predicates show stability and remain in the English sentences, thus providing unity of form and meaning of a syntactic structure. Particularly, in the first simple sentence of the first example, and also in the second simple sentence of the second example the predicate is expressed by phraseological unit - “аз даҳон бўи шир омадан” (compare: milk on lips has not dried) and set expression “гург нахўрдан” (word by word.: the wolf will not eat, i.e. don`t be afraid). While translating the first case selection of adequate conformity into English - to be wet behind ears, and in the second case - descriptive translation - do not be afraid it is observed. The other predicates expressed by corresponding verbs, semantic analogues are picked up.
Let's see more difficult constructions.
1) As the sun set he remembered, to give himself more confidence, the time in the tavern as Casablanca when he had played the hand game with great negro from Cienfuegos who was the strongest man on the dock [4, 88].
Translation: - Пас аз ѓуруби офтоб, пирамард барои шердил кардани худ, замонеро ба ёд овард, ки дар майхонаи Касабланка бо зангии азимљуссае аз Сйенфуегос, ки ќавитарин мард дар бандар буд, сабќати дастхамонї карда буд [4, 89].
2) Ман дар ин коҳиш акаамро њаќнок медонистам, лекин гарданам ёрї намедод [1, 23].
Translation: I knew he was right, but my pride kept me from admitting it…[2, 24].
3) Once I could see quite well in the dark. Not in the absolute dark. But almost as a cat sees [4, 86].
Translation: – Замоне ман њам дар торикї хеле хуб медидам. Албатта, дар торикии мутлаќ не, аммо биноиям ќариб ки мисли гурба буд [4, 87].
Though all the components and the parts of the sentence in the examples specified above are translated completely, they differ in Tadjik and English languages by their structure. However it is necessary to remember that full process of translation should be considered, as there are cases when at an adequate translation both full and partial changes of a sentence structure remain and the meaning of the sentence is transferred adequately. So it is necessary to pay more attention to a semantic component of the sentence not only to its structure.
The analysis of the above sentences show that the sentence of the first example in considered languages represents compound sentences and consists of four simple sentences in English and three simple sentences in Tajik. Under a word by word translation of the given English sentence into Tajik its meaning changes. In this case remains the semantic loading of the sentence changing it into a simple sentence as a part of a compound sentence. The word set here has the meaning of нишастан, ѓуруб кардан (to sit down) here. As a part of an expression as the set has the function of an adverbial modifier of time that remains during translation into Tajik пас аз ғуруби офтоб (after sunset). The predicates in the given sentence are remembered, was strongest man. The syntactical function and the meaning of the given words remain in the translation.
The sentences of the second example represent the complex sentences consisting of two simple sentences in both languages. In the sentences of the original language predicates are њаќнок медонистам, ёрї намедод (to be right, to keep from). During translation into English both predicates are kept in forms (he) was right and (pride) kept me.
As can be seen from the sentence of the third example the grammatical basis of the first part of the sentence could see partially keeps the function and meaning and is transferred by a word медидам, while its modal part (дида метавонистам) is not translated, however as a whole the meaning of the sentence of an original language corresponds to the sentence of the translating language. Also the word combination not in the absolute dark and the sentence but almost as a cat sees while translating into Tajik language lose their structure and turn into the complex sentence. The meaning of a predicate of the given sentence see is transferred into Tajik in a form of мисли гурба буд (as cat sees).
While translating from English into Tajik the grammatical transformations are observed that is replacement of simple sentence into compound sentence. The English sentences containing participial, gerundial and infinitive constructions, while translating into Tajik they have a form of a compound sentence and such replacements are met at the description of the translation of the sentences with impersonal forms of a verb:
<![if !supportLists]>1. <![endif]>Tell them not to bother Santiago [4, 162].
Translation: – Ба онњо гўед, ки ба Сантяго халал нарасонанд [4, 163].
2. …he watched its shadow scaring up the schools of flying fish [4, 71].
Translation: - …ў мушоњида кард, ки чї тавр сояи он селаи моњињои парронро безобита кард, ва онњо боло љањиданд [4, 93].
3. … I promise to make a pilgrimage to the Virgin of Cobre if I catch him [4, 82].
Translation: -…назр мекунам, ки агар ин моњиро гирам, ба зиёрати Бокираи Кубро меравам [4, 83].
<![if !supportLists]>4. <![endif]>But he was rough and harsh-spoken and difficult when he was drinking [4, 24].
Translation: – Аммо ў, ваќте ки маст мешуд, даѓалу бадмуомила буд, бо касе унс намегирифт [4, 25].
<![if !supportLists]>5. <![endif]>It makes no difference, he thought (1). I can always come in on the glow from Havana (2) [4, 56].
Translation: – “Њељ гап нест, - фикр кард ў, - аз рўи рўшноии Њавана метавонам баргардам [4, 57].
From the analysis of a such examples it is necessary to be carefull with a definition of a predicate among the number of verbal constructions of different syntactic functions. Frequently such feature of English sentences mislead unskilled translators because while translating each sentence it is necessary to show an individual approach and define grammatical basis of the sentence: accordingly a predicate and other parts of the sentences correctly.
So, in the first example the simple imperative sentence is translated into Tajik by a compound sentence. The predicate in the sentence is tell not to bother is translated into Tajik as гўед халал нарасонанд.
In the second example the simple verbal predicate watched and (were) scaring up in the main sentence and in a subordinate clause is expressed by simple verbal predicates and is translated as мушоњида кард, безобита кард and боло љањиданд.
In the third example though all the components are translated without changes, distinctions are appreciable only in the structure of the sentence that is in the English variant I promise to make a pilgrimage to the Virgin of Cobre is the main sentence and if I catch him subordinate clause. In the Tajik language the main and subordinate clauses change their places. The main sentence is … назр мекунам, ба зиёрати Bokirai Kubro меравам, and subordinate clause - ки an aгaр ин моњиро гирам. The predicates in these sentences are promise to make a pilgrimage and catch and their translations назр мекунам, меравам and гирам corresponds to them.
As the translation of these examples into English is carried out by means of Russian, it is expedient to consider cases from Russian. For example:
1. «… инњо монанди сагу гурба њамеша ба якдигар душман мебошанд ва ба болои устухон мељанганд…» [1, 140].
Russian translation: - «Ростовщики всегда враждуют, как кошка с собакой».
English translation:- «… they are natural enemies like dogs and cats and fight over every bone» [2, 321].
2. «… ширинкорон ва њангоматалабон њар хабарро дучанд калонтар карда ба Ќорї– Ишкамба мегуфтанд ва ба ў маслињат медоданд, ки аз банк дар эњтиёт бошад, аљаб нест, ки он шикаста монад ва пулњояш, ки «бо њазорон хуни љигар ѓундоштааст», сўзанд» [1, 168].
Russian translation:- «… шутники и озорники передавали их Кори Ишкамбе, и, преувеличивая опасность, грозящую банку, и советуя остерегаться и беречь деньги: ведь очень может статься, что Государственный банк лопнет, и тогда – прощай капиталы, «собранные потом и кровью» .
English translation:- «… They told him that if the Russian Empire were defeated in the war, he could kiss his hand – earned money good–bye» [2, 360].
3. – Хуб! – гўён ман илтимоси бойбачаро ќабул кардам ва илова намудам: - ба хонаи Ќорї – Ишкамба рафтан барои ман маргвор ногувор аст, бо вуљуди ин њамроњи ту меравам, чунки «марги бо дўстон тўй аст» гуфтаанд [1, 50].
Russian translation:- Так и быть – согласился я. – Хоть мне смертельно не хочется входить в дом Коры Ишкамбы, я не могу отказать тебе. Пойдем вместе .
English translation: - “All right, I’ll help you,” I agreed, then added: I’d rather die than go to Kori – Ishkamba’s house with you, but like they say, for true friends, a single grave is room enough!” [2, 236].
In the first sentence the predicates are душман мебошанд and мељанганд. Though in Russian variant they are expressed by one predicate враждуют (are at enmity), but the meaning is translated completely. Both in the meaning and in the structure English and Tajik variants are more similar in translation. Are enemies and fight are also predicates in it as well as in the Tajik variant.
In the second sentence the predicates are калонтар кардан, мегуфтанд, маслињат медоданд, эњтиёт бошад, аљаб нест, шикаста монад, ѓундоштааст, сўзанд. In Russian variant of the given sentence, because of an adequate translation there are all the same predicates in spite of the fact that their places in the sentence are changed. In this sentence the predicates are передавали (told), преувеличивая (exaggerating), советуя (advising), остерегаться (to be careful), беречь (protect), может статься (may be), лопнет(were defeated), прощай (farewell). While translating them into English phraseological units have been used, there is an omission of many elements in the sentence, but the meaning is transferred completely. Thus, the predicates in this sentence are told, were defeated, could kiss and earned and etc.
As H. Madzhidov mentions «the grammatical rules and the laws of each language function only within the limits of their structures” [5, 133-143] and the grammar of the Tajik language is capable to express directly or indirectly any other grammatical meaning both in English and other languages. The task of the translator, especially, when he deals with grammatical units and elements while translating consists first of all in explanation of grammatical meaning and correct diagnosing of function of the grammatical unit of the English language and correct selection of direct or indirect conformities in the Tajik language. At the same time not the grammatical form, but lexical and grammatical meanings should be in the center of translator`s attention.
So, it is possible to transfer a predicate to a predicate while translating affirmative, interrogative and imperative sentences from English into Tajik.
Therefore, the structural transformations of the sentences while translating, connected with the translation of predicates is a normal phenomenon and corresponds to theoretical and practical canons of translation. Certainly, an ideal translation is the translation which is transferred to translating language unified in the structure and meaning because as grammatical errors in translation can make negative impact on the contest and logic of the text.
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